使用Docker Compose部署服务

使用Docker Compose部署服务

evobot 1,035 2019-04-14
  1. 用Docker Compose部署服务
  2. Docker Compose示例

Docker Compose

介绍

  • Docker Compose可以方便我们快捷高效的管理容器的启动、停止、重启等操作,例如环境中存在nginx、redis、mysql等多个镜像容器,如果要对这些容器进行管理,就需要一个个的去启动、停止等,非常繁琐,而Docker Compose就是解决这个问题的;
  • Docker Compose类似于linux下的shell脚本,基于yaml语法,在该文件里,我们可以描述应用的架构,比如使用什么镜像、数据卷、网络模式、监听端口等信息;
  • 我们可以在一个compose文件中定义一个多容器的应用,例如jumpserver,然后通过该compose来启动这个应用。

安装compose

  • 使用以下命令安装当前最新的稳定版Docker Compose:

    sudo curl -L "https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/1.24.0/docker-compose-$(uname -s)-$(uname -m)" -o /usr/local/bin/docker-compose
    
  • 然后为docker-compose命令赋予执行权限:

    sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/docker-compose
    
  • 完成后,可以使用docker-compose version命令查看版本号:

    [root@localhost ~]# docker-compose version
    docker-compose version 1.24.0, build 0aa59064
    docker-py version: 3.7.2
    CPython version: 3.6.8
    OpenSSL version: OpenSSL 1.1.0j  20 Nov 2018
    
    
  • docker compose区分Version1和Version2(Compose 1.6.0+,Docker Engine 1.10.0+),Version2支持更多的指令,在compose的yaml文件里没有声明时,默认是Version1版本,Version1将来会被弃用。

Docker Compose示例

  • 首先创建一个docker-compose.yml文件,写入文件内容如下:

    # version指定compose版本
    version: "2"
    # services指定容器或镜像需要做的操作
    services:
      # app1表示容器名
      app1:
        # 指定容器的镜像
        image: centos_nginx
        # 指定容器要映射的端口
        ports:
          - "8080:80"
        # networks指定容器使用的网络,网络的具体定义在后面的networks内定义,不指定默认为bridge
        networks:
          - "net1"
        # volumes指定容器要挂载的目录
        volumes:
          - /data/:/data
      app2:
        image: centos_with_net
        networks:
          - "net2"
        volumes:
          - /data/:/data1
        # 指定容器启动时运行的命令,如果镜像在制作时指定了entrypoint,这里可以不指定entrypoint,否则容器启动后就会立即停止
        entrypoint: tail -f /etc/passwd
    networks:
      net1:
        driver: bridge
      net2:
        driver: bridge
    
    
  • 在存放docker-compose.yml文件的目录内,使用docker-compose up -d运行docker-compose,其中-d是让容器后台启动,否则容器运行时的输出都是打印到前台:

    [root@localhost ~]# docker-compose up -d
    Creating network "root_net1" with driver "bridge"
    Creating network "root_net2" with driver "bridge"
    Creating root_app2_1 ... done
    Creating root_app1_1 ... done
    [root@localhost ~]# docker ps
    CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                  NAMES
    49210131e9c3        centos_with_net     "tail -f /etc/passwd"    6 seconds ago       Up 3 seconds                               root_app2_1
    0d12af583edf        centos_nginx        "/bin/sh -c '/usr/..."   6 seconds ago       Up 4 seconds        0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   root_app1_1
    
    

    可以看到,指定的app1和app2容器已经被批量启动。

  • 停止docker-compose定义的容器,使用docker-compose stop命令,同样要在docker-compose.yml同级目录内执行:

    [root@localhost ~]# docker-compose stop
    Stopping root_app2_1 ... done
    Stopping root_app1_1 ... done
    [root@localhost ~]# docker ps
    CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                NAMES
    7c6962078906        centos_nginx        "/bin/sh -c '/usr/..."   45 hours ago        Up 45 hours         0.0.0.0:81->80/tcp   nginx
    
    
  • 查看docker-compose命令支持的选项,使用docker-compose -h命令:

    [root@localhost ~]# docker-compose -h
    Define and run multi-container applications with Docker.
    
    Usage:
      docker-compose [-f <arg>...] [options] [COMMAND] [ARGS...]
      docker-compose -h|--help
    
    Options:
      -f, --file FILE             Specify an alternate compose file
                                  (default: docker-compose.yml)
      -p, --project-name NAME     Specify an alternate project name
                                  (default: directory name)
      --verbose                   Show more output
      --log-level LEVEL           Set log level (DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, ERROR, CRITICAL)
      --no-ansi                   Do not print ANSI control characters
      -v, --version               Print version and exit
      -H, --host HOST             Daemon socket to connect to
    
      --tls                       Use TLS; implied by --tlsverify
      --tlscacert CA_PATH         Trust certs signed only by this CA
      --tlscert CLIENT_CERT_PATH  Path to TLS certificate file
      --tlskey TLS_KEY_PATH       Path to TLS key file
      --tlsverify                 Use TLS and verify the remote
      --skip-hostname-check       Don't check the daemon's hostname against the
                                  name specified in the client certificate
      --project-directory PATH    Specify an alternate working directory
                                  (default: the path of the Compose file)
      --compatibility             If set, Compose will attempt to convert keys
                                  in v3 files to their non-Swarm equivalent
    
    Commands:
      build              Build or rebuild services
      bundle             Generate a Docker bundle from the Compose file
      config             Validate and view the Compose file
      create             Create services
      down               Stop and remove containers, networks, images, and volumes
      events             Receive real time events from containers
      exec               Execute a command in a running container
      help               Get help on a command
      images             List images
      kill               Kill containers
      logs               View output from containers
      pause              Pause services
      port               Print the public port for a port binding
      ps                 List containers
      pull               Pull service images
      push               Push service images
      restart            Restart services
      rm                 Remove stopped containers
      run                Run a one-off command
      scale              Set number of containers for a service
      start              Start services
      stop               Stop services
      top                Display the running processes
      unpause            Unpause services
      up                 Create and start containers
      version            Show the Docker-Compose version information
    
    
  • docker-compose ps可以查看当前目录内定义的docker-compose容器状态:

    [root@localhost ~]# docker-compose ps
       Name                  Command                State     Ports
    ---------------------------------------------------------------
    root_app1_1   /bin/sh -c /usr/local/ngin ...   Exit 0
    root_app2_1   tail -f /etc/passwd              Exit 137
    
    #使用-f选项查看指定docker-compose配置的容器
    [root@localhost /]# docker-compose -f /root/docker-compose.yml ps
       Name                  Command                State     Ports
    ---------------------------------------------------------------
    root_app1_1   /bin/sh -c /usr/local/ngin ...   Exit 0
    root_app2_1   tail -f /etc/passwd              Exit 137
    
    


# Docker