Nginx安装及默认虚拟主机、用户认证、域名重定向

Nginx安装及默认虚拟主机、用户认证、域名重定向

evobot 1,039 2018-06-07

本文主要介绍如何安装Nginx,以及安装完成配置Nginx默认虚拟主机,配置用户认证以及域名重定向。


Nginx安装

编译安装

  • 首先下载Nginx-1.12版本源码包并解压,Nginx的版本包在这个地址都可以下载:http://nginx.org/download/

    wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.12.2.tar.gz
    
    tar zxvf nginx-1.12.2.tar.gz
    cd nginx-1.12.2/
    
  • 编译安装:

     ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx
    
    make && make install
    

    nginx编译,需要使用什么模块,就要将对应的编译参数加上,这里暂时不添加模块,直接编译。

  • 查看安装目录:

    [root@evobot nginx-1.12.2]# cd /usr/local/nginx/
    [root@evobot nginx]# ls
    conf  html  logs  sbin
    conf  html  logs  sbin
    
    #配置文件目录
    [root@evobot nginx]# ls conf/
    fastcgi.conf            koi-win             scgi_params
    fastcgi.conf.default    mime.types          scgi_params.default
    fastcgi_params          mime.types.default  uwsgi_params
    fastcgi_params.default  nginx.conf          uwsgi_params.default
    koi-utf                 nginx.conf.default  win-utf
    
    #样例网页目录
    [root@evobot nginx]# ls html/
    50x.html  index.html
    
    #核心执行文件
    [root@evobot nginx]# ls sbin/
    nginx
    

    nginx执行文件同样支持-t选项检查配置文件正确性:

    [root@evobot nginx]# sbin/nginx -t
    nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
    nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
    

配置启动脚本

  • /etc/init.d/目录下创建nginx为名的启动脚本文件,写入以下内容:

    #!/bin/bash
    # chkconfig: - 30 21
    # description: http service.
    # Source Function Library
    . /etc/init.d/functions
    # Nginx Settings
    NGINX_SBIN="/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx"
    NGINX_CONF="/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf"
    NGINX_PID="/usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid"
    RETVAL=0
    prog="Nginx"
    start() 
    {
        echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
        mkdir -p /dev/shm/nginx_temp
        daemon $NGINX_SBIN -c $NGINX_CONF
        RETVAL=$?
        echo
        return $RETVAL
    }
    stop() 
    {
        echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
        killproc -p $NGINX_PID $NGINX_SBIN -TERM
        rm -rf /dev/shm/nginx_temp
        RETVAL=$?
        echo
        return $RETVAL
    }
    reload()
    {
        echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
        killproc -p $NGINX_PID $NGINX_SBIN -HUP
        RETVAL=$?
        echo
        return $RETVAL
    }
    restart()
    {
        stop
        start
    }
    configtest()
    {
        $NGINX_SBIN -c $NGINX_CONF -t
        return 0
    }
    case "$1" in
      start)
            start
            ;;
      stop)
            stop
            ;;
      reload)
            reload
            ;;
      restart)
            restart
            ;;
      configtest)
            configtest
            ;;
      *)
            echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|reload|restart|configtest}"
            RETVAL=1
    esac
    exit $RETVAL
    
  • 然后更改文件权限:

    chmod 755 /etc/init.d/nginx
    

创建配置文件

  • 默认Nginx的conf目录下有一个配置文件,但是这里我们将原有的配置文件备份,重新创建一份配置文件:

    mv conf/nginx.conf conf/nginx.conf.bak
    vi conf/nginx.conf
    
  • 写入以下内容:

    user nobody nobody;
    worker_processes 2;
    error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx_error.log crit;
    pid /usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid;
    worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;
    events
    {
        use epoll;
        worker_connections 6000;
    }
    http
    {
        include mime.types;
        default_type application/octet-stream;
        server_names_hash_bucket_size 3526;
        server_names_hash_max_size 4096;
        log_format combined_realip '$remote_addr $http_x_forwarded_for [$time_local]'
        ' $host "$request_uri" $status'
        ' "$http_referer" "$http_user_agent"';
        sendfile on;
        tcp_nopush on;
        keepalive_timeout 30;
        client_header_timeout 3m;
        client_body_timeout 3m;
        send_timeout 3m;
        connection_pool_size 256;
        client_header_buffer_size 1k;
        large_client_header_buffers 8 4k;
        request_pool_size 4k;
        output_buffers 4 32k;
        postpone_output 1460;
        client_max_body_size 10m;
        client_body_buffer_size 256k;
        client_body_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/client_body_temp;
        proxy_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/proxy_temp;
        fastcgi_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/fastcgi_temp;
        fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
        tcp_nodelay on;
        gzip on;
        gzip_min_length 1k;
        gzip_buffers 4 8k;
        gzip_comp_level 5;
        gzip_http_version 1.1;
        gzip_types text/plain application/x-javascript text/css text/htm 
        application/xml;
        server
        {
            listen 80;
            server_name localhost;
            index index.html index.htm index.php;
            root /usr/local/nginx/html;
            location ~ \.php$ 
            {
                include fastcgi_params;
                fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php-fcgi.sock;
                fastcgi_index index.php;
                fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /usr/local/nginx/html$fastcgi_script_name;
            }    
        }
    }
    
  • 其中部分配置文件的作用如下:

    #定义运行nginx服务的用户及用户组
    user nobody nobody;
    #定义最大子进程数量
    worker_processes 2;
    #定义错误日志
    error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx_error.log crit;
    #定义pid文件路径
    pid /usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid;
    #定义最大打开文件数量
    worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;
    events
    {
        use epoll;	#使用epoll模式
        worker_connections 6000;	#最大连接数
    }
    #定义http相关的配置
    http
    {
      ...
      server  #对应于apache的虚拟主机,
        {
            listen 80;  #监听端口
            server_name localhost; #主机域名
            index index.html index.htm index.php;
            root /usr/local/nginx/html;  #网站根目录
            location ~ \.php$ #PHP解析配置
            {
                include fastcgi_params;
                fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php-fcgi.sock; #与php通信方式,可以为ip:port
                fastcgi_index index.php;
                fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /usr/local/nginx/html$fastcgi_script_name;
            }    
        }
    }
    

启动nginx并解析PHP

  • 配置完成后,使用service nginx start启动nginx,查看进程,可以看到一个父进程,两个子进程,即worker_processes 2:

    [root@evobot ~]# ps aux |grep nginx
    root     18411  0.0  0.0  20496   624 ?        Ss   01:15   0:00 nginx: masterprocess /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
    nobody   18415  0.0  0.1  25024  3508 ?        S    01:15   0:00 nginx: workerprocess
    nobody   18416  0.0  0.1  25024  3760 ?        S    01:15   0:00 nginx: workerprocess
    root     18497  0.0  0.0 112676   980 pts/4    R+   01:16   0:00 grep --color=auto nginx
    
    [root@evobot ~]# !net
    netstat -tlnpa
    Active Internet connections (servers and established)
    Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State PID/Program name
    tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:111             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN 1/systemd
    tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:80              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN 18411/nginx: master
    
  • 然后使用curl localhost即可访问到nginx的默认页面:

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
    <head>
    <title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
    <style>
        body {
            width: 35em;
            margin: 0 auto;
            font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
        }
    </style>
    </head>
    <body>
    <h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
    <p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
    working. Further configuration is required.</p>
    
    <p>For online documentation and support please refer to
    <a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
    Commercial support is available at
    <a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>
    
    <p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
    </body>
    </html>
    
  • 在nginx安装目录下的html目录下创建1.php,写入以下内容:

    <?php
    echo "nginx php run success";
    ?>
    
  • 然后使用curl localhost/1.php查看解析情况:

    [root@evobot nginx]# curl localhost/1.php
    nginx php run success
    

Nginx默认虚拟主机

  • 将nginx.conf中的server配置部分删除,并增加一行配置如下:

    include vhost/*.conf
    
  • 然后再conf目录内创建vhost子目录,并创建evobot.conf:

    [root@evobot nginx]# mkdir conf/vhost
    [root@evobot nginx]# touch conf/vhost/evobot.conf
    
  • evobot.conf写入如下内容:

    server
    {
        #default server表示指定为默认虚拟主机
        listen 80 default_server;
        server_name test.evobot.cn;
        index index.html index.htm index.php;
        root /data/wwwroot/default;
    }
    
  • 然后创建/data/wwwroot/default目录,并创建index.php:

    [root@evobot nginx]# mkdir /data/wwwroot/defautl
    [root@evobot nginx]# vi /data/wwwroot/default/index.html
    [root@evobot nginx]# cat !$
    cat /data/wwwroot/default/index.html
    Welcome to default vhost
    
  • 检查配置文件正确性后,使用service nginx reload重新加载配置:

    [root@evobot nginx]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
    nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
    nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
    [root@evobot nginx]# service nginx reload
    Reloading nginx configuration (via systemctl):             [  确定  ]
    
  • curl访问,查看结果:

    [root@evobot nginx]# curl localhost
    Welcome to default vhost
    
    [root@evobot nginx]# curl test.evobot.cn
    Welcome to default vhost
    
  • nginx的虚拟主机配置中如果没用default_server这句配置,那么nginx会将vhost目录中第一个配置作为默认虚拟主机,如a.conf。

nginx root&alias文件路径配置

  • nginx指定文件路径的方式有rootalias两种方式,主要的区别在于nginx如何解释location后面的uri,这会使两者以不同的方式将请求映射到服务器文件上。

  • root的配置如下:

    location ~ ^/weblogs/ {
      root /data/weblogs/www.test.com;
      autoindex on;
      auth_basic  "Restricted";
      auth_basic_user_file    passwd/weblogs;
    }
    
    • 如果一个请求的URI为/weblogs/httplogs/www.test.com-access.log,web服务器会返回服务器上/data/weblogs/www.test.com/weblogs/httplogs/www.test.com-access.log文件;
    • root会根据完整的URI请求来进行路径的映射,即映射的本地路径是包含了location的匹配内容部分的;
  • alias的配置如下:

    location ^~ /binapp/ {
      limit_conn limit 4;
      limit_rate 200k;
      internal;
      alias /data/statics/bin/apps/;
    }
    
    • alias在映射时会将location后面的匹配内容路径丢弃,把当前匹配到的目录指向到指定的目录;
    • 如一个请求的URI为/binapp/a.test.com/favicon.jpg,web服务器将会映射到本地的/data/statics/bin/apps/a.test.com/favicon.jpg文件;
    • alias在配置时,目录名后面必须要加上/;并且alias只能在location块中配置。

Nginx用户认证

站点用户认证

  • 首先创建一个新的vhost来进行配置,如auth.conf,然后写入以下配置:

    server
    {
        listen 80;
        server_name auth.evobot.cn;
        index index.html index.htm index.php;
        root /data/wwwroot/auth.evobot.cn;
    
        location /
        {
            auth_basic              "Auth";
            auth_basic_user_file    /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd;
        }
    }
    

    location配置项内的配置就是用户认证的配置,auth_basic为用户认证的名称,auth_basic_user_file则是用户名密码文件。

  • 然后使用apache的htpasswd命令来生成用户名密码文件,如果已经编译安装,则使用/usr/local/apache/bin/htpasswd命令即可,没有安装apache,则使用yum安装httpd软件包,生成密码文件命令如下:

    [root@evobot nginx]# /usr/local/apache2.4/bin/htpasswd -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd evobot
    New password:
    Re-type new password:
    Adding password for user evobot
    
    [root@evobot nginx]# cat /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd
    evobot:$apr1$GErMiBdC$i4ZJIMPTVzFxSmwbPp7n1/
    

    如果要添加多个用户,则第二次添加不需要使用htpasswd命令的-c选项,否则新的用户名密码会将之前的用户名密码覆盖。

  • 将虚拟主机站点根目录及相关页面创建完成,检查配置文件正确性后重载nginx,然后访问虚拟主机:

    [root@evobot nginx]# curl auth.evobot.cn -I
    HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
    Server: nginx/1.12.2
    Date: Thu, 07 Jun 2018 18:11:45 GMT
    Content-Type: text/html
    Content-Length: 195
    Connection: keep-alive
    WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="Auth"
    
    [root@evobot nginx]# curl -uevobot:evobot auth.evobot.cn
    Congratulations!Correct passwd!
    

文件用户认证

  • 不想针对整个虚拟主机站点进行用户认证,只想针对指定的文件访问请求进行认证,只需要在location配置后面加上指定的文件相对虚拟主机根目录的路径即可:

    server
    {
        listen 80;
        server_name auth.evobot.cn;
        index index.html index.htm index.php;
        root /data/wwwroot/auth.evobot.cn;
    
        location /admin/	#增加文件路径
        {
            auth_basic              "Auth";
            auth_basic_user_file    /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd;
        }
    }
    
  • 保存退出后重新加载配置,然后访问测试:

    [root@evobot nginx]# curl auth.evobot.cn
    Welcome to my website!
    
    [root@evobot nginx]# curl auth.evobot.cn/admin/
    <html>
    <head><title>401 Authorization Required</title></head>
    <body bgcolor="white">
    <center><h1>401 Authorization Required</h1></center>
    <hr><center>nginx/1.12.2</center>
    </body>
    </html>
    
    [root@evobot nginx]# curl -uevobot:evobot auth.evobot.cn/admin/
    Congratulations!Correct passwd!
    

URL用户认证

  • 针对访问一类URL进行用户认证,需要在location后面使用~进行匹配,配置如下:

    server
    {
        listen 80;
        server_name auth.evobot.cn;
        index index.html index.htm index.php;
        root /data/wwwroot/auth.evobot.cn;
    
        location ~ admin.html  #匹配包含admin.html的URL
        {
            auth_basic              "Auth";
            auth_basic_user_file    /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd;
        }
    }
    
  • 重加载后尝试访问:

    [root@evobot nginx]# curl auth.evobot.cn
    Welcome to my website!
    
    [root@evobot nginx]# curl auth.evobot.cn/admin/
    Welcome to admin page
    
    [root@evobot nginx]# curl auth.evobot.cn/admin/admin.html
    <html>
    <head><title>401 Authorization Required</title></head>
    <body bgcolor="white">
    <center><h1>401 Authorization Required</h1></center>
    <hr><center>nginx/1.12.2</center>
    </body>
    </html>
    
    [root@evobot nginx]# curl -uevobot:evobot auth.evobot.cn/admin/admin.html
    Congratulations!Correct passwd!
    

Nginx域名重定向

  • 更改虚拟主机配置文件,为server_name增加多个域名,然后使用rewrite实现跳转,配置如下:

    server
    {
        listen 80;
        #增加多个域名
        server_name auth.evobot.cn test.evobot.cn; 
        index index.html index.htm index.php;
        root /data/wwwroot/auth.evobot.cn;
        #配置域名跳转,$host是用户访问的域名,rewrite进行匹配并将域名后面的请求地址转发给跳转的域名,permanent为301跳转,302跳转则为redirect
        if ($host != 'auth.evobot.cn') {
            rewrite ^/(.*)$ http://auth.evobot.cn/$1 permanent;
        }
    
        location ~ admin.html
        {
            auth_basic              "Auth";
            auth_basic_user_file    /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd;
        }
    }
    
  • 配置完成后重新加载配置,进行尝试访问,可以看到Location已经跳转到指定的地址:

    [root@evobot nginx]# curl test.evobot.cn/admin/index.html -I
    HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently
    Server: nginx/1.12.2
    Date: Thu, 07 Jun 2018 18:42:36 GMT
    Content-Type: text/html
    Content-Length: 185
    Connection: keep-alive
    Location: http://auth.evobot.cn/admin/index.html
    

Nginx配置文件nginx.conf详解


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