MariaDB和Apache的安装

MariaDB和Apache的安装

evobot 961 2018-05-24

MariaDB由于与MySQL基本相同,所以安装方法也基本一致,这里介绍MariaDB的免编译二进制安装包的安装方法,另外也将介绍Apache的安装方法。


MariaDB安装

  • 下载MariaDB:

    # cd /usr/local/src
    # wget https://downloads.mariadb.com/MariaDB/mariadb-10.2.6/bintar-linux-glibc_214-x86_64/mariadb-10.2.6-linux-glibc_214-x86_64.tar.gz
    
  • 解压MariaDB压缩包:

    # tar zxvf mariadb-10.2.6-linux-glibc_214-x86_64.tar.gz
    
  • 将解压出来的目录移动到/usr/local/下并更名为mariadb

    # mv mariadb-10.2.6-linux-glibc_214-x86_64 /usr/local/mariadb
    
  • 创建mysql用户并创建/data/mariadb目录,或使用mariadb目录下的data目录:

    # useradd mysql -s /bin/nologin
    # mkdir -p /data/mariadb
    
  • 执行初始化脚本:

    # ./scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --datadir=/data/mariadb/
    
    • 如果在执行初始化脚本是提示如下错误,那么需要将/etc/my,cnf删除或者重命名,这是由于之前安装了MySQL并且修改了my.cnf内的basedir等配置造成的,或者在初始化脚本的参数上增加--basedir=/usr/local/mariadb
    FATAL ERROR: Could not find mysqld
    
    The following directories were searched:
    
        /usr/local/mysql/libexec
        /usr/local/mysql/sbin
        /usr/local/mysql/bin
    
    If you compiled from source, you need to either run 'make install' to
    copy the software into the correct location ready for operation.
    If you don't want to do a full install, you can use the --srcddir
    option to only install the mysql database and privilege tables
    
    If you are using a binary release, you must either be at the top
    level of the extracted archive, or pass the --basedir option
    pointing to that location.
    
    The latest information about mysql_install_db is available at
    
  • 复制配置文件和启动脚本:

    MariaDB提供了不同的配置文件,如my-small.cnf,my-large.cnf,这些配置文件的不同之处在于其定义的MariaDB运行时的缓存,缓冲等大小不一样,可以根据自己机器的性能和配置,选择合适的配置文件复制:

    另外为了与MySQL的配置做区分,这里不在复制到/etc/下,而是复制到MariaDB的basedir下:

    # cp support-files/my-small.cnf /usr/local/mariadb/my.cnf
    # cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mariadb
    
  • 编辑启动脚本和配置文件

    • 为了防止MariaDB启动时由于未配置datadir,导致启动时MariaDB读取/etc/my.cnf中配置的datadir,所以需要在MariaDB自定义的配置文件中增加datadir:
    [mysqld]
    datadir=/data/mariadb
    
    • MariaDB的启动脚本需要对basedirdatadir进行修改,并且增加conf配置,然后再修改启动命令,指定配置文件启动:
    basedir=/usr/local/mariadb
    datadir=/data/mariadb
    conf=$basedir/my.cnf
    ...
    case "$mode" in
      'start')
        # Start daemon
    
        # Safeguard (relative paths, core dumps..)
        cd $basedir
    
        echo $echo_n "Starting MySQL"
        if test -x $bindir/mysqld_safe
        then
          # Give extra arguments to mysqld with the my.cnf file. This script
          # may be overwritten at next upgrade.
          # 增加--defaults-file选项
          $bindir/mysqld_safe --defaults-file="$conf" --datadir="$datadir" --pid-file="$mysqld_pid_file_path" "$@" &
          wait_for_ready; return_value=$?
    ...
    
  • 启动服务

    [root@localhost mariadb]# /etc/init.d/mariadb start
    Reloading systemd:                                         [  确定  ]
    Starting mariadb (via systemctl):                          [  确定  ]
    
    [root@localhost mariadb]# ps aux | grep mysql
    root       2288  0.0  0.1 115380  1736 ?        S    00:19   0:00 /bin/sh /usr/local/mariadb/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/usr/local/mariadb/my.cnf --datadir=/data/mariadb --pid-file=/data/mariadb/localhost.localdomain.pid
    mysql      2404  0.3  5.6 1583772 56676 ?       Sl   00:19   0:00 /usr/local/mariadb/bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/usr/local/mariadb/my.cnf --basedir=/usr/local/mariadb --datadir=/data/mariadb --plugin-dir=/usr/local/mariadb/lib/plugin --user=mysql --log-error=/data/mariadb/localhost.localdomain.err --pid-file=/data/mariadb/localhost.localdomain.pid --socket=/tmp/mysql.sock --port=3306
    root       2442  0.0  0.0 112668   964 pts/0    S+   00:21   0:00 grep --color=auto mysql
    
    [root@localhost mariadb]# netstat -tlnp
    Active Internet connections (only servers)
    Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       PID/Program name
    tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1328/sshd
    tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:25            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      2032/master
    tcp6       0      0 :::3306                 :::*                    LISTEN      2404/mysqld
    

Apache安装

Apache是一个基金会的名字,实际上httpd才是需要安装的软件包,早期其名字叫做apache。

下载httpd源码包及依赖包

  • 安装httpd还需要使用aprapr-util通用函数库,它们可以让httpd不关心底层操作系统平台,可以很方便的移植,如从linux移植到windows。

  • 下载httpd和apr,apr-util源码包:

    // httpd2.4.33源码包
    # wget http://mirrors.cnnic.cn/apache/httpd/httpd-2.4.33.tar.gz
    // apr1.6.3源码包
    # wget http://mirrors.cnnic.cn/apache/apr/apr-1.6.3.tar.gz
    // apr-util1.6.1源码包
    # wget http://mirrors.cnnic.cn/apache/apr/apr-util-1.6.1.tar.bz2
    

编译apr和apr-util

  • 由于yum安装的apr和apr-util版本与httpd2.4不匹配,所以需要手动编译这两个库;

编译apr

# tar zxvf apr-1.6.3.tar.gz
# cd apr-1.6.3
# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apr
# make && make install
  • 检查是否安装正确

    [root@localhost apr-1.6.3]# echo $?
    0
    

编译apr-util

  • 编译apr-util时需要指定apr的安装位置:

    # tar jxvf apr-util-1.6.1.tar.bz2
    # cd apr-util-1.6.1
    # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apr-util --with-apr=/usr/local/apr
    # make && make install
    
  • 如果执行make的过程中报错如下,则需要安装xml解析的expat-devel软件包:

    [root@localhost apr-util-1.6.1]# make && make install
    make[1]: 进入目录“/usr/local/src/apr-util-1.6.1”
    /bin/sh /usr/local/apr/build-1/libtool --silent --mode=compile gcc -g -O2 -pthread   -DHAVE_CONFIG_H  -DLINUX -D_REENTRANT -D_GNU_SOURCE   -I/usr/local/src/apr-util-1.6.1/include -I/usr/local/src/apr-util-1.6.1/include/private  -I/usr/local/apr/include/apr-1    -o xml/apr_xml.lo -c xml/apr_xml.c &&touch xml/apr_xml.lo
    xml/apr_xml.c:35:19: 致命错误:expat.h:没有那个文件或目录
     #include <expat.h>
                       ^
    编译中断。
    make[1]: *** [xml/apr_xml.lo] 错误 1
    make[1]: 离开目录“/usr/local/src/apr-util-1.6.1”
    make: *** [all-recursive] 错误 1
    

编译安装httpd

  • httpd的编译参数如下:

    ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apache2.4 \
    --with-apr=/usr/local/apr \
    --with-apr-util=/usr/local/apr-util \
    --enable-so \
    --enable-mods-shared=most
    
    • 其中,enable-so参数是让apache支持动态扩展和加载模块,如php模块,enable-mods-shared=most参数则是指定apache支持绝大多数的模块扩展。
  • 编译时报错pcre-config,则需要安装pcre-devel软件包:

    checking for pcre-config... false
    configure: error: pcre-config for libpcre not found. PCRE is required and available from http://pcre.org/
    
  • 安装:

    # make && make install
    
    • 安装时如果报错如下,则是因为编译apr-util时没有安装expat-devel,并且安装之后没有重新进行编译,如果编译出错,使用make clean清除之前的编译结果:
    /usr/local/apr-util/lib/libaprutil-1.so: undefined reference to `XML_GetErrorCode'
    /usr/local/apr-util/lib/libaprutil-1.so: undefined reference to `XML_SetEntityDeclHandler'
    /usr/local/apr-util/lib/libaprutil-1.so: undefined reference to `XML_ParserCreate'
    /usr/local/apr-util/lib/libaprutil-1.so: undefined reference to `XML_SetCharacterDataHandler'
    /usr/local/apr-util/lib/libaprutil-1.so: undefined reference to `XML_ParserFree'
    /usr/local/apr-util/lib/libaprutil-1.so: undefined reference to `XML_SetUserData'
    /usr/local/apr-util/lib/libaprutil-1.so: undefined reference to `XML_StopParser'
    /usr/local/apr-util/lib/libaprutil-1.so: undefined reference to `XML_Parse'
    /usr/local/apr-util/lib/libaprutil-1.so: undefined reference to `XML_ErrorString'
    /usr/local/apr-util/lib/libaprutil-1.so: undefined reference to `XML_SetElementHandler'
    collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
    make[2]: *** [htpasswd] 错误 1
    make[2]: 离开目录“/usr/local/src/httpd-2.4.33/support”
    make[1]: *** [all-recursive] 错误 1
    make[1]: 离开目录“/usr/local/src/httpd-2.4.33/support”
    make: *** [all-recursive] 错误 1
    
  • 安装完成后可以进入apache的安装目录,apache的执行文件为apache/bin/httpd:

    [root@localhost apache2.4]# ls
    bin    cgi-bin  error   icons    logs  manual
    build  conf     htdocs  include  man   modules
    
    [root@localhost apache2.4]# ls -l bin/httpd
    -rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 2348432 5月  25 01:33 bin/httpd
    
  • apache的安装目录下,conf目录为配置文件所在目录,htdocs则是存放默认访问页的目录,logs则是日志存放的目录,日志由错误日志、访问日志等,modules则是扩展模块的存放目录,每个模块都代表apache的一个功能,查看apache加载了哪些模块,可以使用如下命令:

    # /usr/local/apache2.4/bin/apachectl -M
    or
    # /usr/local/apache2.4/bin/httpd -M
    
    [root@localhost apache2.4]# ./bin/httpd -M
    AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using localhost.localdomain. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
    Loaded Modules:
     core_module (static)
     so_module (static)
     http_module (static)
     mpm_event_module (static)
     authn_file_module (shared)
     authn_core_module (shared)
     authz_host_module (shared)
     authz_groupfile_module (shared)
     authz_user_module (shared)
     authz_core_module (shared)
     access_compat_module (shared)
     auth_basic_module (shared)
     reqtimeout_module (shared)
     filter_module (shared)
     mime_module (shared)
     log_config_module (shared)
     env_module (shared)
     headers_module (shared)
     setenvif_module (shared)
     version_module (shared)
     unixd_module (shared)
     status_module (shared)
     autoindex_module (shared)
     dir_module (shared)
     alias_module (shared)
    
    • 这里模块后面的staticshared,static表示模块被编译进了htppd脚本里,是一个整体;shared则表示扩展模块,模块在modules目录下,在需要时被调用。
  • 启动apache,执行bin/apachectl start

    [root@localhost apache2.4]# /usr/local/apache2.4/bin/apachectl start
    AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using localhost.localdomain. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
    
    [root@localhost apache2.4]# ps aux | grep httpd
    root      76399  0.0  0.2  70952  2248 ?        Ss   01:47   0:00 /usr/local/apache2.4/bin/httpd -k start
    daemon    76400  0.0  0.4 359916  4264 ?        Sl   01:47   0:00 /usr/local/apache2.4/bin/httpd -k start
    daemon    76401  0.0  0.4 359916  4264 ?        Sl   01:47   0:00 /usr/local/apache2.4/bin/httpd -k start
    daemon    76402  0.0  0.4 359916  4264 ?        Sl   01:47   0:00 /usr/local/apache2.4/bin/httpd -k start
    root      76485  0.0  0.0 112724   976 pts/0    S+   01:47   0:00 grep --color=auto httpd
    
    [root@localhost apache2.4]# netstat -tlnp
    Active Internet connections (only servers)
    Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State     PID/Program name
    tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     1328/sshd
    tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:25            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     2032/master
    tcp6       0      0 :::80                   :::*                    LISTEN     76399/httpd
    
    • 默认监听80端口。


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