ansible管理服务及playbook的使用

ansible管理服务及playbook的使用

evobot 946 2018-09-25
  1. ansible安装包和管理服务
  2. 使用ansible playbook
  3. playbook里的变量
  4. playbook里的循环
  5. playbook里的条件判断
  6. playbook中的handlers

ansible安装软件及管理服务

安装软件

  • ansible远程安装软件使用yum模块,命令格式为ansible [group] -m yum -a "name=[rpmname]"

    [root@vm1 ~]# ansible vm2 -m yum -a "name=zsh"
    vm2 | SUCCESS => {
        "changed": true, 
        "msg": "", 
        "rc": 0, 
        "results": [
            "Loaded plugins: fastestmirror\nLoading mirror speeds from cached hostfile\n * base: mirrors.163.com\n * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com\n * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com\nResolving Dependencies\n--> Running transaction check\n---> Package zsh.x86_64 0:5.0.2-28.el7 will be installed\n--> Finished Dependency Resolution\n\nDependencies Resolved\n\n================================================================================\n Package        Arch              Version                 Repository       Size\n================================================================================\nInstalling:\n zsh            x86_64            5.0.2-28.el7            base            2.4 M\n\nTransaction Summary\n================================================================================\nInstall  1 Package\n\nTotal download size: 2.4 M\nInstalled size: 5.6 M\nDownloading packages:\nRunning transaction check\nRunning transaction test\nTransaction test succeeded\nRunning transaction\n  Installing : zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64                                      1/1 \n  Verifying  : zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64                                      1/1 \n\nInstalled:\n  zsh.x86_64 0:5.0.2-28.el7                                                     \n\nComplete!\n"
        ]
    }
    
    
  • 而远程卸载一个软件包,则使用ansible [group] -m yum -a "name=[rpmname] state=removed"命令:

    [root@vm1 ~]# ansible vm2 -m yum -a "name=zsh state=removed"
    vm2 | SUCCESS => {
        "changed": true, 
        "msg": "", 
        "rc": 0, 
        "results": [
            "已加载插件:fastestmirror\n正在解决依赖关系\n--> 正在检查事务\n---> 软件包 zsh.x86_64.0.5.0.2-28.el7 将被 删除\n--> 解决依赖关系完成\n\n依赖关系解决\n\n================================================================================\n Package       架构             版本                      源               大小\n================================================================================\n正在删除:\n zsh           x86_64           5.0.2-28.el7              @base           5.6 M\n\n事务概要\n================================================================================\n移除  1 软件包\n\n安装大小:5.6 M\nDownloading packages:\nRunning transaction check\nRunning transaction test\nTransaction test succeeded\nRunning transaction\n  正在删除    : zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64                                     1/1 \n  验证中      : zsh-5.0.2-28.el7.x86_64                                     1/1 \n\n删除:\n  zsh.x86_64 0:5.0.2-28.el7                                                     \n\n完毕!\n"
        ]
    }
    
    
  • 可以看到卸载软件使用了state=removed参数,其实安装软件的参数也可以加上state=installed,但默认不加就是安装软件包,所以这个参数可以省略。

管理服务

  • ansible远程管理服务使用service模块,命令格式为ansible [group] -m service -a "name=[service_name] state=[started|stopped] enabled=[yes|no]",这里的enabled是指定服务是否开机启动:

    [root@vm1 ~]# ansible vm2 -m service -a "name=httpd state=started enabled=no"
    vm2 | SUCCESS => {
        "changed": true, 
        "enabled": false, 
        "name": "httpd", 
        "state": "started", 
        "status": {
            "ActiveEnterTimestampMonotonic": "0", 
            "ActiveExitTimestampMonotonic": "0", 
            "ActiveState": "inactive", 
            "After": "remote-fs.target network.target basic.target -.mount nss-lookup.target systemd-journald.socket tmp.mount system.slice", 
    		...
        }
    }
    
    
  • 查看vm2上的httpd服务是否启动:

    [root@vm2 ~]# ps aux|grep httpd
    root      18137  0.1  1.0 226264  5180 ?        Ss   23:12   0:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
    apache    18138  0.0  0.6 226264  3012 ?        S    23:12   0:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
    apache    18139  0.0  0.6 226264  3012 ?        S    23:12   0:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
    apache    18140  0.0  0.6 226264  3012 ?        S    23:12   0:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
    apache    18141  0.0  0.6 226264  3012 ?        S    23:12   0:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
    apache    18142  0.0  0.6 226264  3012 ?        S    23:12   0:00 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
    
    [root@vm2 ~]# systemctl is-enabled httpd
    disabled
    
    

ansible-doc命令

  • ansible-doc命令可以查看模块的用法,使用这个命令需要安装ansible-doc软件包;

  • ansible-doc -l可以列出所有的模块,ansible-doc [module_name]命令则可以查看模块的参数和用法:

    [root@vm1 ~]# ansible-doc -l
    a10_server                                Manage A10 Networks AX/SoftAX/Thunder/vThunder devi...
    a10_server_axapi3                         Manage A10 Networks AX/SoftAX/Thunder/vThunder devi...
    a10_service_group                         Manage A10 Networks AX/SoftAX/Thunder/vThunder devi...
    a10_virtual_server                        Manage A10 Networks AX/SoftAX/Thunder/vThunder devi...
    accelerate                                Enable accelerated mode on remote node             
    aci_aep                                   Manage attachable Access Entity Profile (AEP) on Ci...
    aci_ap                                    Manage top level Application Profile (AP) objects o...
    aci_bd                                    Manage Bridge Domains (BD) on Cisco ACI Fabrics (fv...
    aci_bd_subnet                             Manage Subnets on Cisco ACI fabrics (fv:Subnet)    
    aci_bd_to_l3out                           Bind Bridge Domain to L3 Out on Cisco ACI fabrics (...
    aci_config_rollback                       Provides rollback and rollback preview functionalit...
    aci_config_snapshot                       Manage Config Snapshots on Cisco ACI fabrics (confi...
    ...
    
    [root@vm1 ~]# ansible-doc service
    > SERVICE    (/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/ansible/modules/system/service.py)
    
            Controls services on remote hosts. Supported init systems include BSD
            init, OpenRC, SysV, Solaris SMF, systemd, upstart. For Windows
            targets, use the [win_service] module instead.
    
      * note: This module has a corresponding action plugin.
    
    OPTIONS (= is mandatory):
    
    - arguments
            Additional arguments provided on the command line
            (Aliases: args)[Default: (null)]
    
    - enabled
            Whether the service should start on boot. *At least one of state and
            enabled are required.*
            (Choices: yes, no)[Default: (null)]
    
    

ansible playbook

playbook使用

  • ansible的playbook相当于将模块写到配置文件里,而不是使用命令行逐条命令执行;

  • /etc/ansible目录下创建test.yml,ansible的playbook为.yml后缀名,写入的内容如下所示,可以展示出playbook的格式:

    ---	#第一行必须为三条'-'
    - hosts: vm2	#- hosts指定操作的主机,多个主机使用',’分隔,也可以使用主机组
      remote_user: root	# 指定操作使用的用户身份
      tasks:	# 指定执行的任务
        - name: test_playbook	# playbook的名字,在执行时会打印
          shell: touch /tmp/evobot.txt	#使用的模块为shell,然后为执行的命令
    
    
  • 保存之后,使用ansible-playbook [playbook_name.yml]命令运行playbook:

    [root@vm1 ansible]# ansible-playbook test.yml 
    
    PLAY [vm2] ***************************************************************************************
    
    TASK [Gathering Facts] ***************************************************************************
    ok: [vm2]
    
    TASK [test_playbook] *****************************************************************************
     [WARNING]: Consider using file module with state=touch rather than running touch
    
    changed: [vm2]
    
    PLAY RECAP ***************************************************************************************
    vm2                        : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   
    
    
    
  • 在vm2上查看运行结果:

    [root@vm2 ~]# ls -l /tmp/evobot.txt 
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 0 9月  25 23:28 /tmp/evobot.txt
    
    

playbook中的变量

  • 重新创建一个playbook,文件名为create_user.yml,用来创建用户的playbook,内容如下:

    ---
    - name: create_user
      hosts: vm2
      user: root
      gather_facts:false
      vars:
        - user: "test"
      tasks:
        - name: create user
          user: name="{{user}}"
    
    
  • 上面的playbook中,gather_facts用来收集客户机上的一些属性信息,这里将其关闭,在机器数量较多时,建议关闭,减轻ansible压力,vars用来定义变量,变量名为user,值为"test"以便在后面进行引用;然后在tasks中使用了user模块,并且使用双重花括号引用之前定义的变量user

  • 执行结果如下:

    [root@vm1 ansible]# ansible-playbook create_user.yml 
    
    PLAY [create_user] *******************************************************************************
    
    TASK [create user] *******************************************************************************
    changed: [vm2]
    
    PLAY RECAP ***************************************************************************************
    vm2                        : ok=1    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   
    
    [root@vm2 ~]# id test
    uid=1001(test) gid=1001(test) 组=1001(test)
    
    
  • 如果创建的用户已经存在,在执行playbook时,输出信息的changed就是为0。

playbook循环

  • 再创建一个while.ymlpalybook,写入如下内容:

    ---
    - hosts: vm2
      user: root
      tasks:
        - name: change mode for files
          file: path=/tmp/{{ item }} state=touch  mode=600	
          with_items:
            - 1.txt
            - 2.txt
            - 3.txt
    
    
  • 上面的playbook使用了file模块,创建文件,并将权限设置为600,其中创建的文件名,使用了变量{{ item }},在下面使用了with_items设置循环,这样在执行p'laybook时,就会将with_items中定义的三个文件名,传递给变量item,并使用file模块进行创建,

  • 执行结果如下:

    [root@vm1 ansible]# ansible-playbook while.yml 
    
    PLAY [vm2] ***************************************************************************************
    
    TASK [Gathering Facts] ***************************************************************************
    ok: [vm2]
    
    TASK [change mode for files] *********************************************************************
    changed: [vm2] => (item=1.txt)
    changed: [vm2] => (item=2.txt)
    changed: [vm2] => (item=3.txt)
    
    PLAY RECAP ***************************************************************************************
    vm2                        : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   
    
    
    
  • ansible playbook中定义循环是先定义变量,再使用with_items进行循环。

playbook中的条件判断

  • 之前使用的gather_facts,类似于saltstack中的grains,会对客户机的信息进行收集,而查看这些信息,则使用命令ansible [hostname] -m setup,使用了setup模块:

    [root@vm1 ansible]# ansible vm2 -m setup
    vm2 | SUCCESS => {
        "ansible_facts": {
            "ansible_all_ipv4_addresses": [
                "192.168.199.142"
            ], 
            "ansible_all_ipv6_addresses": [
                "fe80::3ef1:a048:4d1d:67cd"
            ], 
            "ansible_apparmor": {
                "status": "disabled"
            }, 
            "ansible_ens33": {
                "active": true, 
                "device": "ens33", 
                "features": {
                    "busy_poll": "off [fixed]", 
                    "fcoe_mtu": "off [fixed]", 
                    "generic_receive_offload": "on", 
                    "generic_segmentation_offload": "on", 
                    "highdma": "off [fixed]", 
                    "hw_tc_offload": "off [fixed]", 
                    "l2_fwd_offload": "off [fixed]", 
                    "large_receive_offload": "off [fixed]", 
                    "loopback": "off [fixed]", 
                    "netns_local": "off [fixed]", 
                    "ntuple_filters": "off [fixed]", 
                    "receive_hashing": "off [fixed]", 
                    "rx_all": "off", 
                    "rx_checksumming": "off", 
                    "rx_fcs": "off", 
                    "rx_vlan_filter": "on [fixed]", 
                    "rx_vlan_offload": "on", 
                    "rx_vlan_stag_filter": "off [fixed]", 
                    "rx_vlan_stag_hw_parse": "off [fixed]", 
                    "scatter_gather": "on", 
                    "tcp_segmentation_offload": "on", 
                    "tx_checksum_fcoe_crc": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_checksum_ip_generic": "on", 
                    "tx_checksum_ipv4": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_checksum_ipv6": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_checksum_sctp": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_checksumming": "on", 
                    "tx_fcoe_segmentation": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_gre_segmentation": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_gso_robust": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_ipip_segmentation": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_lockless": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_mpls_segmentation": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_nocache_copy": "off", 
                    "tx_scatter_gather": "on", 
                    "tx_scatter_gather_fraglist": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_sctp_segmentation": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_sit_segmentation": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_tcp6_segmentation": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_tcp_ecn_segmentation": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_tcp_segmentation": "on", 
                    "tx_udp_tnl_segmentation": "off [fixed]", 
                    "tx_vlan_offload": "on [fixed]", 
                    "tx_vlan_stag_hw_insert": "off [fixed]", 
                    "udp_fragmentation_offload": "off [fixed]", 
                    "vlan_challenged": "off [fixed]"
                }, 
                "hw_timestamp_filters": [], 
                "ipv4": {
                    "address": "192.168.199.142", 
                    "broadcast": "192.168.199.255", 
                    "netmask": "255.255.255.0", 
                    "network": "192.168.199.0"
                }, 
                "ipv6": [
                    {
                        "address": "fe80::3ef1:a048:4d1d:67cd", 
                        "prefix": "64", 
                        "scope": "link"
                    }
                ], 
    	...
    
  • 假如我们想在一个playbook中针对客户机的某个条件进行判断,例如IP地址,那么就需要使用到上面gather_facts所列出的信息,然后进行判断,上面有一个键名为ipv4,内部包含了客户机的IP地址,而ipv4键则包含在ansible_ens33键值中,所以使用这个键进行判断,创建when.ymlplaybook,写入内容如下:

    ---
    - hosts: vm2
      user: root
      gather_facts: True
      tasks:
        - name: use when
          shell: touch /tmp/when.txt
          when: ansible_ens33.ipv4.address == "192.168.199.142"
          # gather_facts中所列的节点使用'.'进行连接,将所有的节点列出来,使用'=='进行判断
    
    
  • 执行结果如下:

    [root@vm1 ansible]# ansible-playbook when.yml 
    
    PLAY [vm2] ***************************************************************************************
    
    TASK [Gathering Facts] ***************************************************************************
    ok: [vm2]
    
    TASK [use when] **********************************************************************************
     [WARNING]: Consider using file module with state=touch rather than running touch
    
    changed: [vm2]
    
    PLAY RECAP ***************************************************************************************
    vm2                        : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   
    
    
  • 更改判断条件再执行:

    ---
    - hosts: vm2
      user: root
      gather_facts: True
      tasks:
        - name: use when
          shell: touch /tmp/when.txt
          when: ansible_hostname != "vm2"
    
    
    [root@vm1 ansible]# ansible-playbook when.yml 
    
    PLAY [vm2] *************************************************************************************************************************
    
    TASK [Gathering Facts] *************************************************************************************************************
    ok: [vm2]
    
    TASK [use when] ********************************************************************************************************************
    skipping: [vm2]
    
    PLAY RECAP *************************************************************************************************************************
    vm2                        : ok=1    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0   
    
    

handlers

  • playbook中的handlers相当于shell中的&&符号,即前一个命令执行成功后才会执行下一个任务;

  • 创建handlers.yml,写入以下内容:

    ---
    - name: handers test
      hosts: vm2
      user: root
      tasks:
        - name: copy file
          copy: src=/etc/passwd dest=/tmp/aaa.txt
          notify: test handlers
      handlers:
        - name: test handlers
          shell: echo "11111" >> /tmp/aaa.txt
    
    
  • 上面的playbook中,notify的值是下面的handlers的name的值,handlers则执行shell模块,执行结果如下:

    [root@vm1 ansible]# ansible-playbook handlers.yml 
    
    PLAY [handers test] ******************************************************************************
    
    TASK [Gathering Facts] ***************************************************************************
    ok: [vm2]
    
    TASK [copy file] *********************************************************************************
    changed: [vm2]
    
    RUNNING HANDLER [test handlers] ******************************************************************
    changed: [vm2]
    
    PLAY RECAP ***************************************************************************************
    vm2                        : ok=3    changed=2    unreachable=0    failed=0   
    
    
    • vm2的结果:
    [root@vm2 ~]# tail -n 2 /tmp/aaa.txt 
    mysql:x:1103:1103::/home/mysql:/bin/bash
    11111
    
    
  • handlers会在前面的tasks执行成功之后才会执行,如果前一条命令执行失败,则结果如下:

    [root@vm1 ansible]# ansible-playbook handlers.yml 
    
    PLAY [handers test] ******************************************************************************
    
    TASK [Gathering Facts] ***************************************************************************
    ok: [vm2]
    
    TASK [copy file] *********************************************************************************
    fatal: [vm2]: FAILED! => {"changed": false, "cmd": "pa", "msg": "[Errno 2] 没有那个文件或目录", "rc": 2}
    	to retry, use: --limit @/etc/ansible/handlers.retry
    
    PLAY RECAP ***************************************************************************************
    vm2                        : ok=1    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=1   
    
    


# ansible